Medicinal plants used for the treatment and prevention of diseases of humans and animals. Medicines that give plants included more than 30% of the world’s medicines.
The roots, stems, buds, leaves of medicinal plants contain biologically active substances: alkaloids, glycosides (bitter and very poisonous substance), essential oils. The medicinal effect is also organic acids, vitamins. volatile. tannins.
Medicinal plants known to man for a very long time. In Ancient Assyria, Egypt, China, India, the herb was used to treat diseases 5 thousand years ago. In Russia about the use of medicinal plants indicates, for example, “Izbornik Grand Prince Svyatoslav Yaroslavovych” (1073). In Russia, grew medicinal herbs for the pharmaceutical kitchen gardens since the beginning of the XVII century
In the CIS there are about 2500 species of medicinal plants. More than 220 species used in medicine and in veterinary medicine.
The majority of medicinal plants growing wild. About 40 species are grown on the fields of farms. Among them, Mentha piperita, Valeriana officinalis, chamomile Dalmatian, rhubarb Tangut. belladonna, Datura Stramonium, sage, aloe, Foxglove and woolly red, marigold (calendula), securinega half-shrub, lobed nightshade, Stefania smooth, sea buckthorn, fennel, etc.
In our country virushepatitis, native Australia (lobed nightshade), India (Stephania smooth), other countries with warm and humid climate. So these plants have to survive in the new climate, scrutinize their areas of origin, biological characteristics, requirements for environmental conditions. Medicinal plants of temperate climate can easily tolerate low temperatures and grow well at 18-20°, hydrophilic, demanding to light. Mediterranean and tropical species (Ammi, fennel, thyme, etc.) need higher temperatures and low humidity.
Medicinal plants reproduce primarily by seeds: Valerian, chamomile, Dalmatian, Datura Stramonium, digitalis, etc. Some of them (mint, diosco-ray, aloe Vera, passion flower, Stephanie) propagated vegetatively: stem cuttings, division of roots and tubers.
Medicinal plants are grown in special crop rotations. For perennial plants often allocate a separate link in crop rotation or land out of crop rotation. Forbs and shrubs cultivated on Vaseva-negotiable areas. Heat-loving perennials (aloe, lobed nightshade) is cultivated in annual crops: are sown or planted in the spring and in the same year you get the harvest.
Technological processes of cultivation of many medicinal plants: chamomile Dalmatian, lobed nightshade, Valerian, etc. is almost completely mechanized. Breeders to derive new varieties of medicinal plants with a high content of active substances, resistant to adverse environmental conditions, pests and diseases.
Of great importance is the protection and correct exploitation of wild thickets.